At the time, both in the devastated 2nd World War, Germany flourished only a few companies, the Japanese motorcycle industry since 1945 with over 100 manufacturers, took the opportunity to provide the country with a ruined economy a much-needed cheap personal transport. It was promoted and protectionist policies for essential duties on imported goods.
Among these companies was founded by an engineer and self-taught Honda Soichiro Honda who created his first motorized two-wheelers in 1947, Soichiro Honda was born in 1906 in the town of Komё near Hamamatsu, where his father was a blacksmith. At age 16 he left school and became an apprentice motor mechanic in Tokyo, organized a repair shop in his hometown of Hamamatsu in 1922. As his business prospered, Soichiro took up auto racing, and in All Japan Rally competitions for speed 1936 set having held 20 years old record medium speed. Later he withdrew from the competition due to a serious accident. Undoubted reason for the success of his company was his talent organizing large-scale production. Soichiro studied metallurgy at the local technical college, and after experimenting with different alloys moved to mass production of piston rings, founded the company Tokai Seiki Heavy Industries.
Model Honda brand in 1961, Benly Super Sport CB92 class 125sm3 was simple but reliable bike, marked the beginning of the approval mark Honda to the end connections
This was the main products of the company until 1945, when the surviving after which began a year before the bombing of the Union aviation factory was razed by the earthquake. Soichiro sold all that remained of the plant, and in October 1946 established the Technical Research Institute of Honda. The basis for the activities of this organization was the purchase of 500 replacement army two-stroke engines, which were installed on a standard bicycle frames, using a belt drive to the rear wheel, which was a return to the origins of motorization. Thus, there was a first motorcycle brands Honda, who has worked on a mixture of gasoline with turpentine. When the supply of these engines was used, Honda began to produce copies of itself entitled to squeeze out 50 cm3 working volume modest horsepower (1 hp) at 5000 rev. / Min. Accessories include slide carburetor, reinforcing effect of suction valve in the crankcase and the flywheel magneto.
Soon, Honda has moved to a specially fabricated frame. As the very first motorcycle and modern mopeds, motorcycles still were equipped with pedals, as well as spring-loaded front forks. The company quickly evolved in 1948 Honda introduced the model of «B-type» which was three-wheel and had a loading platform. Engine capacity was increased to 80 cm3, and as expected, the more voluminous engine was used in the next two-wheeled model C-type. This model is still used transmission with belt drive, but in 1949, Honda released the D-type or Dream, which was the first real motorcycle company. The model was the frame of its own production of steel channel with a chain drive from the two-stroke engine of 98 cm3, coupled with a two-stage gearbox. At that time it was one of the best cars are made in Japan, and the company's accountant Takeo Fujisawa (Takeo Fujisawa) organized a national network of dealers. Many of these operators is simply a small bike shops, interrupt somehow, but the seeds of networking of successful trading and distribution of spare parts were sown. Do Soichiro Honda free up time to focus efforts in the design work, and by 1950 the company became the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Japan, which produces about half of all motorcycles in the country at the time when the industry was drawn into a price war, accompanied by the provision of large discounts.
Two new models appeared in 1952, technically more advanced version of the E model was Dream, which was based on the frame and mechanical parts from the model D, as well as the power unit used first own four-stroke engine. It was a single-cylinder three-valve engine with 146 cm3 with two carburetors, two intake and one exhaust valve develops power of 5 hp at 5000 rev / min driven through a two-stage gearbox. Motorcycle engine does not require special care and lots of oil.
For the less affluent consumers Honda unveiled the F-Cob. It was none other than the bike with an easy two-stroke engine capacity of 50 cm3, placed low on the Levey-side rear wheel. Engine minimum capacity of 1 hp at 3000 rev. / min. oars only 6 kg. This model was a huge success.
It is very likely that this is not a Japanese expression leans more and sell cheaper, but it reflects the position of the Honda quite early in the 1950s. When huge volumes of production enabled the company to bring down the price and sell more than their competitors. Continuing the expansion of Soichiro Honda in 1952 visited Europe and the US ordered from there tools and equipment for more than one million dollars than almost razvolil company. These charges coincided with a downturn in the Japanese economy, but the bankers of the company had sufficient foresight to organize their support.
The first modern car was Honda model J, which appeared in 1953. It was equipped with a frame of pressed steel with a telescopic fork and rear suspension with torsion bar, overhead valve engine in volume of 89 cm3 and a three-stage gearbox with foot switching speeds. The following year, Soichiro Honda visited the track races on the Isle of Man and learned many details of the real achievements of European engineering, which are subsequently introduced in its production.
The first Honda engine with overhead camshaft power unit was a block design of 246 cm3 model Dream SA, released in 1955, followed by a version with an engine capacity of 344 cm3. These models in 1957 were converted to the M series models with new forks, just at this time, the leader of the Japanese market began to explore the export market, and the company's proposal was the product of the machine open frame - a hybrid of mopeds and scooters. Super Cub C100 model with an engine capacity of 90 cm3, released in August 1958, has made great economic and social effects, offering millions worldwide and modest, yet respectable vehicle.
It was a great car, not only economically, but also from a practical point of view, thanks to the good mechanical parts are protected from the weather wheel mounted on the center engine and automatic clutch. The doctrine was probably correct because the model C100 and its derivatives are sold best motorcycles in the world.
Meanwhile, due to the fact that the Japanese market was oversupplied in 1959 Honda organized a concession to the United States, and soon thereafter followed operations in Europe and Southeast Asia. Due crafted by advertising strategy aimed at those who do not ride motorcycles, a new bike boom, and sales of motorcycles in the US Honda skyrocketed. Following the C100 appeared many more popular motorcycles, all of which were equipped with engines with overhead camshaft and a chain drive. The first of this series was the single cylinder model CS90 1964 8 hp capacity, which as a cylinder and head are made of light alloy.
The first two-cylinder road car was the Honda C70 with an engine capacity of 247 cm3. His appearance in 1957, it was largely owes two-cylinder motorcycles NSU overhead camshaft that Soichiro saw three years earlier on the track racing. Made of aluminum engine developed 18 hp power under 7400 vol. / min. with a compression ratio of 8.2: 1. The crank pins were placed at an angle of 360 degrees, which means that the pistons go up and down in unison, and the camshaft is driven by means of the central chain. Transmission consists of four-speed transmission and chains.
The company moved inexorably to the creation of a civilized motorcycle, and in 1958 there was a model C71 with an electric starter, as a result there is no need to Kickstarter. In the same year appeared motocross bike RC70 <20 hp, which was not the frame of pressed steel, and from the pipes. A smaller version of the engine model C70 of 125 cm3 and a power of 11.5 hp used in the model C90, and also produces a sports version of SV90. Ended with a series of models C75 and CS76, fitted with an engine capacity of 305 cc. see (based on the bore of the engine 250 cm3, with relatively exotic top location of the camshaft and mechanical parts from aluminum alloys. All this combined with the reliability and modest price surprises many clients on US and European markets.
Sport model class 250 cm3 SV72 release in 1960 was characterized by a lubricant in the oil pan, located crankpins of the crankshaft angle of 180 °, two carburetors, a compression ratio of 9.5: 1, the telescopic fork and tubular frame. Soon other model series have inherited these technological solutions, marking the transition of the brand Honda to modern design. CL72 model was derived from SV72, it allows young people to enjoy the ride on the road. The origins of the company's success is largely descended from the race, resulting in high-performance four-stroke two-cylinder vysokooborotisty road motorcycles have become the norm. First international competition for Honda started the race track in 1959, on which the company fielded five riders and nine cars in the class of 125 cm3, although they could not compete with machines NSU. In 1960, the four-cylinder Honda 250 completed the track competition in the class of 250 cm3 of the fourth, and then in the absence of MV Agusta in 1961 for the entire season was dominated by Honda in classes 125 and 250 cm3, and a 21- year-old Mike Hailwood won the championship. The same pattern was observed in 1962 and 1963. When Jim Redman won the crown for Honda in class 250 cm3, and in 1964, Honda has furnished MV Agusta in the constructors' championship in the class of 500 cm3. This was a period when there were exotic cars, five-cylinder type or class of 125 six-cylinder 250 cm3 class. In 1967 came the Halewood won the title for Honda in classes 250 and 350 cm3, by this time had already won 136 Grand Prix.
At the same time, the company tried to combine his experience racing in cars with more powerful engines with the production of road motorcycles with engines larger volume. The first Japanese motorcycle, able to compete with European (including UK) producers became CB 450 Dream, released in 1965. This machine features a new engine with 445 cm3 with two camshafts, valve springs and torsion two carburetors, mounted in a conventional reference frame differs from the tubular frame Honda, in which the engine, like, hanging over the counter. Nicknamed Black Bomber, motorcycle developed a speed 161 km / h, while the market had expected such speed, at least, from the machines with the traditional two-cylinder engine capacity of 650 cm3.
Model paved the way to market the machines with the same characteristics, produces compete with Honda concerns Suzuki, Yamaha and Kawasaki. In production always had and not as rampant versions of sports motorcycles, and in 1967, Honda released the two-cylinder model CD 175, designed for those who have grown out of a class of 125 cm3. The machine was equipped with a four-barrel carburetor and transmission, while the sport model of the same series, for example, CB 175, equipped with two carburetors and five-speed gearbox.
A new high-revving 250 weeks NE, develops power of 30 hp at 10 000 rev. / min, but it was balanced by a more prosaic version of the M and CD and CL. By 1970, all models equipped with front disc brakes, a design for most of the decade was dominated by the rounded shape, "which were considered obsolete after the appearance in 1977, which had a completely different look Superdrcam. By this time the motorcycle SB450 Black Bomber evolved SV500T with extended stroke and lower compression ratio.
At the turn of the 1960s and 1970s. Honda has been busy changing in both directions displacement. From small single-cylinder models of the company should be made first-class sports moped SS50, which develops power 6 hp at about 11,000. / min and less high-speed moped PC5Q, equipped with the familiar engine with overhead camshaft mounted on the base frame. Off-road motorcycles were represented by a series of SL and XL with a set of motors sizes 125, 185, 250 and 500sm3. The most fundamental of all was the model from the valve tappets CG125, which is produced in Brazil until the end of the 1990s.
At the other end of the size range was the model SV750, produce different impression on influential kruii from the world of motorcycles. At that time, as the C100 paved road in a brand new market sectors, a large four-bike sets new standards for sectors functioned and was a very good tool to intercept credit market in such prestigious brands like BSA and Triumph. The fact that the specification SV750, is a machine of mass production were present previously considered rosksshyu distinctive features, which include five speeds, front disc brake and electric starter, while motorcycles were available from local dealers at competitive prices. Furthermore, the car has been reliable has a capacity of 67 hp at 8000 rev. / min. and a maximum speed of 201 km / h. Fuel supplied to the engine with four carburetors and use tried and tested by design two valves per cylinder, single overhead camshaft with chain drive.
Following the SV750 in 1971 there was a four-SV500 motorcycle power of 50 hp, and in 1972 - SB350. Two years later, the latest model has evolved in four motorcycle SV400, which became the best selling bike in the family of Honda, which explains the popularity of engine capacity due to licensing restrictions. Displacement model SV500 was also increased to 544 cm3, and there was a model SB550.
In 1975, Honda introduced its biggest tourist model driveline class of 1000 cm3 motorcycle Gold Wing. The model was equipped with in-line four-cylinder water-cooled and four carburetors, developing 80 hp at 7000 r. / min. Because of the presence of such additional components, such as water cooler bike was relatively heavy - it weighs 295 kg. however, due to its horizontal position of the engine's center of gravity located low. The fuel tank is located under the seat, and located in the usual place fake tank contained electrician. The focus of the design of the bike has been paid to high-speed driving comfort and engine Gold Wing has evolved, rising to 1085sm3 in 1980., 1182sm3 - in 1984 and in 1989 became a six-cylinder motorcycle GL1500 100 hp Windshields, fairings, luggage were fashionable, and in an effort to circumvent the Harley Davidson was present all the necessary amenities for equipment including reverse gear.
The answer to the SV750 was a rival Kawaasaki model Z1 a Honda, in turn, said that took a leaf out of the Benelli catalog and created a model SVH. The six-cylinder motorcycle was released in 1978 .. a year after, This Benelli , but the engine was SBH 24-valves, developed capacity of 105 hp and accelerated to a speed of 217 km / h.
If the original V-shaped two-cylinder model is the Moto Guzzi. Honda released the machine is the same layout, which, thanks to the unpretentious service and reliability, has won the hearts and minds of the stone army couriers SKH500 debut in 1978 can not be considered favorable, then due to some kind of rounded motorcycle nicknamed Plastic Maggot . The bike was equipped with a V-twin cylinder transverse engine capacity of 499 cm3 liquid-cooled four-actuated valve tappets. Its 50 hp passed through a shaft drive which has contributed to the lack of tension in the maintenance schedule. In 1984 there was a model SKH650, followed by a version of the Turbo 82 hp power, lack of which was overweight and complexity, absent in the SH model aspirated. In this case, standard motorbikes were so good power to weight ratio that turbocharging became useless.